IIJSR Archives

International Interdisciplinary Journal of Scholarly Research (IIJSR)
ISSN 2412-303X

Special Inaugural Issue

Volume 1 Issue 1 , January 2015

Table of Contents

The Comparison of Service Quality in Public and Private Clubs in Lorestan Province Using SRERVQUAL Model Download File

Mohammad Ehsani, Hashem Kozechian, Ehsan Tatari Hassan Gaviar & Sirus Jafari Zafar Abadi                               [01-08]

The comparison of loneliness and social selfefficacy among male adolescents in families where the presence of father is temporary (for employment) and normal adolescents Download File

Tahmineh Kamalian, Hojattollah Fani, Zahra Ghaderi                                                                                                                    [09-19] 


Rana Salman Anwar, Rahila Saeed, Fatima Hanif, Raheel Abbas, Atzaz-ul-hassan, Ikram Zain, & Humaira Gill [20-42]

Consumer Complaining Behavior Download File

Armaghan Abbasi & Salman Ali                                                                          [43-50]


Rana Salman Anwar & Salman Ali                                                                                            [51-57]

International Interdisciplinary Journal of Scholarly Research (IIJSR)
ISSN 2412-303X

Volume 1 Issue 2 , April 2015

Table of Contents


Download File Syed Adnan Ali & Maria Rahim                                                                                                                                    [01-05]


Download File

 Mr. Syed Wajeeh Husain, Mr. Affan Siddique, Mr. Ahmad Abbas Ali, Mr. M Rafaqat Ali & Mr. M Akbar   [06-19]


Download File Habib Ahmad, Rana Waqar Luqman, Asad Raza, Usama Chishti & Rana Yasir Tufail   [20-28]

International Interdisciplinary Journal of Scholarly Research (IIJSR)
ISSN 2412-303X

Volume 1 Issue 3 , July 2015

Relationship_between_spiritual_intelligence_&_emotional_intelligence_with_transformational_leadership. Download File

Author: Leila Rostami                                                                                                                                                                         
 Pages: [01-09] 

The_relationship_between_burnout_and_performance_of_physical_education_teachers_in_kermanshah.pdf Download File

Authors: Mohsen Karami, Mehran Aghajari, Sara Kazemi & Abbas Allahyar Beldaji                    
Pages: [10-12]

Impact_of_sales_promotion_on_consumer_buying_behavior_in_pakistan.pdf Download File

Authors: Syed Ali Ahmad, Mazher Mustafa, Muhammad Rashid, Zill-e-Huma, Jamil Khan, Muhammad Faisal Tahir Khan, Syed Aun Ahmad & Zuriat Zahra                                                                                                                                           Pages:  [13-22]


Download File Authors: Rabia Inam Khan, Maria Khan Durrani, Saima Tauni & Sumaira Aslam                  Pages:  [23-35]
                                                                                                                                                          Note:It’s Corrigendum is published at News Section.


Download File Authors: Bushra Anjum, Attiya Irum & Dr. Naheed                                                   Pages:  [36-48]


Download File Authors: Sumaira Aslam & Muhammad Wasim Aslam                                                    Pages:  [49-56]

International Interdisciplinary Journal of Scholarly Research (IIJSR)
ISSN 2412-303X

Volume 2 Issue 1 , January 2016

Enhancement_in_Agile_Development_Methodologies_Using_Extreme_Programming_to_Overcome_Large_Scale_Firm’s_Implementation_problem.pdf Download File

Abstract: Extreme programming is one of the most effective and commonly used agile development methodology among software development methodologies. But in extreme programming, quality activities were executed consecutively along with the functional requirements. It reduces the rapidity in continuous iterations and makes inverse relation between quality and agility. Agile development worked with the small scale projects along with few experts team but not for large project. It could not be implemented properly due to scaling and estimation problem. Extreme programming (XP) with enhancing capabilities enabled agile methods to work efficiently for large scale organizations. XP was best suitable to be documentation and easier to implement. System engineering approach was considered as incremental change related to coding. Extreme programming was enabling hundreds of programmers and software engineers to work on large projects using agile development methodologies.
Keywords: Estimation, Scaling, Extreme Programming, Hierarchical approach, Process Measurement Author: Muhammad Zeeshan Ali                                                                                                                                                                        Pages: [01-08] 

Impact_of_Billboard_Advertisement_on_Customer_Buying_Behavior:_A_Study_on_Islamia_University_of_Bahawalpur__IUB_.pdf Download File

Abstract:  The idea behind this study is to expose the factors which have greater influence on customer buying behavior while making purchase decision through billboard advertisement. Here, in this study it is finally concluded after applying correlation and regression techniques that billboard location and catching billboards have greater influence on customer buying behavior. Design/methodology: this study is conducted on the students of IUB and sample size of 259 questionnaires was filled to find out the impact of billboard advertisement on their buying behavior. In this study reliability, correlation and regression techniques are applied. Findings: it is concluded that billboard advertisement influences the consumer buying behavior more when it is attractive to see, easy to understand and it is properly placed means delivering its messages to the right people.
Keywords: Advertisement, Outdoor advertisement, Billboard advertisement, Catching billboards.Authors: Rizwana Iqbal & Sana Batool                                                                                                                                                                        
 Pages: [09-15] 

Impact_of_Green_Advertising_on_Consumer_Purchase_Behavior.pdf Download File

Abstract: Purpose: The main intention to write this paper is to determine the impact of green advertising on customer purchase behavior and analysis the affect of Ecoliteracy and environmental concern on consumer buying behavior. Methodology/Approach: we collect primary data the target population for the study was the undergraduate, graduate and post graduate students of Islamia University Bahawalpur Pakistan. Sample size was of 384 students. We apply co-relation and regression test techniques to find out consumers responses. The finding of our research shows that consumer buying behavior is influenced by environmental concern and Eco-literacy. Findings: The findings of our research shows that consumer buying behavior is influenced by environmental concerns and Ecoliteracy It means those consumers who have knowledge about environmental issues and those who are more concerned about environmental betterment will positively respond toward green advertising. Future Implications and limitations: The study will be helpful for creating awareness in people about green advertising and convincing them to purchase those products that are beneficial for themselves and for society as well. our sample size is only students of Islamia university due to time constraints but ,if in future general public is considered as sample size then it will positively contribute for the betterment of the society by creating conciseness about environmental issues.
Keywords: Green advertising, Environmental friendly, Consumer purchase behavior, Environmental concerns, Eco-literacy Authors: Sana Batool & Rizwana Iqbal                                                                                                                         Pages: [16-22] ​

Manifestation_of_Behavioral_and_Emotional_Disturbances_in_News_Reporters_Covering_Traumatic_Events.pdf Download File

Abstract: The present study was conducted to identify emotional and behavioral disturbances among the News Reporters covering Traumatic events. In this study, a sample of 200 News Reporters belonging to the national and the local news agencies were selected from Rawalpindi and Islamabad who has covered any traumatic event in the past one year. Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank (RISB) and Impact of Event Scale interpretations were used to assess variety of emotional and behavioral patterns of News Reporters. Results showed that some of the frequent emotional/behavioral reactions exhibited by individuals like withdrawal, anxiety\depression, aggression, hyperarousal and avoidance behavior. Whereas gender based comparisons indicated that there is no significant gender difference in the News Reporters in manifestations of behavioral and emotional disturbances. It is concluded that significant negative emotional and behavioral reactions are exhibited by the News Reporters who cover traumatic events. The study identifies the negative emotional and behavioral reactions towards trauma, which can be helpful for identifying problematic area for counseling and therapeutic interventions for these News Reporters.
Keywords: Behavioral Disturbances, Emotional Disturbances, News Reporters, Traumatic Events, Post Traumatic Stress DisorderAuthors: Misbah Shahzadi & Mahwish Rabia                                                                                                                                                                    
 Pages: [23-27]

Adjectives_in_Nezami_Ganjavi`_Makhzan-al-Asrar.pdf Download File

Abstract: The description is not new in Persian poetry and has a special place in the works of famous poets, including Nezami. This study showed that Nezami used many types of adjectives in Makhzan-al-Asrar. In its simplest form, he used image; this indicates the high imaging and imagination power of poet. However, this study aimed to use experts’ adjective definitions to determine them in this work and classify them as simple, derivative, compound, and derivative-compound.
Keywords: Persian poetry ,Nezami,  adjectives, imagination power.
Authors: Parivash Jamshidi (M.A)                                                                                                                                                                    
 Pages: [28-31]

International Interdisciplinary Journal of Scholarly Research (IIJSR)
ISSN 2412-303X

Volume 2 Issue 2 , July 2016

Content List 

Food_Microstructur__its_Role_in_Nutrient_Bioavailability.pdf Download File

Abstract: Food microstructure, a fractional frame work of cellular organelles in plant and animal play a major role in the release and bioavailability of several nutrients and allergenic substances which has great consequences in assessing nutritional role, food impact and nutraceuticals in preventing and as therapy of some chronic human diseases. The awareness and the knowledge of food microstructure is a bed foundation of applied food processing and product development for optimal mucosal and gut absorption and utilization of nutrient in human and animal blood plasmids
Keywords: Food microstructure, bioavailability, nutrients and nutrient role.

Author/s: Ogori Akama Friday
Pages: 01-05

impact_of_website_design_and_perceived_risk_internet_trust_on_the_consumer_purchase_intention_in_forex_market.pdf Download File

Abstract: The aim of the study to identify the factors affecting “Consumer Purchase Intention” in the forex market in Sargodha and Lahore city of Pakistan. This study measures the level of purchase intention related to the internet trust, website design and perceived risk in Foreign Exchange Market. Self-administrated questionnaires were used for data collection from traders of this market, the questionnaire were distributed in Lahore and Sargodha city for the purpose of data collection. Result shows that internet trust, website design and perceived risk significantly affect consumer purchase intention in forex market. Internet trust and website design have positive impact on the consumer purchase intention and “perceived risk” has negative impact on the “Online Consumer Purchase Intention” in forex market.
Keywords: Foreign Exchange Market, Consumer Purchase Intention (CPI), Internet Trust (IT), Forex Website Design (WD) and Perceived Risk (PR)

Author/s: Muhammad Hamid, Muhammad Asim Hafeez, Muhammad Awais & Ali Hassan Abbas khan​
Pages: 06-17

An_analysis_of_determinants_of_private_investment_in_pakistan.pdf Download File

Abstract: Private investment is very important for the prosperity of any country. It pushed up the economic growth by solving the problems of unemployment, raising income and standard of living of people. This paper investigates the economic factors that affect Private Investment in Pakistan using the data from 1980-2011. Engle Granger Cointegration technique has been applied to analyze the long run and short run relationship with private investment. Results show that savings, credit and gross domestic product effect positively while inflation effect negatively private investment.
Keywords: Private Investment, Pakistan, Cointegration, Error Correction Model.

​​Author/s: Mahnaz Muhammad Ali & Salma Shaheen
Pages: 18-25

The_impact_of_organizational_factors_on_sustainable_development_of_companies.pdf Download File

Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the impact of organizational factors on sustainable development of companies with an emphasis on role of innovation capabilities and social responsibility strategies in companies in industrial city 1, Zanjan. This was applied analytic survey research. A questionnaire was used for collecting the data. The population consisted of all employees and managers of companies which are located in industrial city 1in Zanjan(N= 275). Using Cochran formula, 160 subjects were selected as sample. The SPSS software was used to estimate the model. The estimation results showed that all components of organizational factors had a significant positive impact on company’s sustainable development; however, the positive impact was different among various components of organizational factors.
Keywords: Sustainable Development, Innovation Capabilities, Corporate Social Responsibility Strategies. 

Author/s: MarziyehSalek 
Pages: 26-32

The_impact_of_organizational_factors_on_innovation.pdf Download File

Abstract: The innovation capability is one of the key and important issues which has been proposed in social sciences. However, this study aimed to investigate the impact of organizational factors on innovation capability of companies with an emphasis on role of research and development talents and research and development technology in companies in industrial city 1, Zanjan. This was applied analytic survey research. A questionnaire was used for collecting the data. The population consisted of all employees and managers of companies which are located in industrial city 1in Zanjan(N= 275). Using Cochran formula, 160 subjects were selected as sample. The SPSS software was used to estimate the model. The estimation results showed that all components of organizational factors had a significant positive impact on company’s innovation capability; however, the positive impact was different among various components of organizational factors.
Keywords: Sustainable Development, Innovation Capabilities, Research and Development Talents, Research and Development Technology. 

Author/s: MarziyehSalek 
Pages: 33-37 

International Interdisciplinary Journal of Scholarly Research (IIJSR)
ISSN 2412-303X

ContentsJanuary 2017
Volume 3, Issue 1  

Title: The Influence of Leadership Competencies on Sustainable Funding of Non- Governmental Organizations: A Review of Literature.

Abstract: In every organisation, success in one way or the other is attributed to competent leadership.Unlike government or for-profit sectors, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) have to mobilize resources and manage organisations that sustainably provide for the needs of communities that do not pay back like business entities do. The mantle to drive the NGO mission and manage organisational challenges especially funding, creates distinct management challenges for NGOs and hence the need for appropriate leadership to face these challenges. This paper reviews the existing literature on the influence of leadership competencies on sustainable funding of NGOs. The review has established that most of the NGOs in Africa arehighly donor dependent to the effect that the character and role of the majority of NGOs is influenced by the availability of funds and interests of funders/donors. Notably, the review also reveals that funding from external donors is increasingly becoming unreliable and volatile. The review further established thatthe NGO leader is pivotal to the survival of the NGO since s/he is at the centre of NGO mission and overall strategic leadership.The typical competencies commonly associated with NGO leaders as the ability of a leader missioning and visioning, fundraising, staff empowerment and responsiveness to changing environment.However, most of the leadership traits studies conducted have focused on public and private organisations and least on the NGOs. This paper provides a theoretical review on the influence of leadership competencies and sustainable funding of NGOs, gaps in the literature, lessons learned and

Author/s:Paul Kyalimpa, Fulufhelo Godfrey Netswera & Edward Malatse Rankhumise         Pages: 01-11

01-001-017-iijsr.pdf Download File

Title: The Influence of Leadership Competencies on Sustainable Funding of Local Non-Governmental Organizations in Uganda: Empirical Study

Abstract: Introduction: It has been observed that when an individual with a vision launches a Local Non-Governmental Organizations (LNGO or NGO), the organization’s motivation and decision-making often become intimately intertwined with the leader’s personality and character to the effect that the NGO may collapse when the NGO leader departs. Despite a high percentage of inactivity and mortality of LNGOs in Uganda, there has been no specific research conducted to establish the level of influence of competencies of NGO leaders on sustainable funding of the LNGOs. Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the competencies of LNGO leaders and the extent to which these competencies influence sustainable funding of these LNGOs in Uganda. Methods: This study utilized a descriptive correlation design. A proportionate stratified sample of 103 NGOs was obtained and their leaders were interviewed using self-administered questionnaires. Records reviews were also conducted to obtain data on financial sustainability.
Results: Overall, there was a very strong agreement by participants on possession of various leadership competencies among NGO leaders in Uganda. Thus, we found a 90.1% to 100% agreement by participants on the various NGO leadership competencies. There was also a marked rise in incomes from all sources between 2010 and 2014. In this study, the average total income from all sources was found to be $104903.39, of which 67%, 13.5%, and 19.5% were from external donors, local donors, and own income respectively. The average donor-dependence ratio and survival ratio over the 5 year period were 80.54% and 71.216 days respectively. The NGO leader/CEO understanding and working with whatever resources that is available (β=-9.802, P=.002) and spearheading the implementation of major investment decisions (β=15.720, P=.004) were the only competencies found to be statistically significant predictors of NGO financial sustainability measures (donor dependence ratio and survival ratio respectively). Recommendations: There is need for capacity building of NGO leaders in competencies that promote sustainable funding of LNGOs especially in effective and efficient resource utilization and investment. LNGOs should also prioritize investments in Income Generating Activities (IGAs) as core sources of funding. Lastly, there is need for governments’ deliberate policies to collaborate with LNGOs by allocating adequate budget and resources for implementation of NGO agenda that is in line national development priorities.

Author/s:Paul Kyalimpa, Fulufhelo Godfrey Netswera & Edward Malatse Rankhumise                                                                                                       

02-001-017-iijsr.pdf Download File

​The Influence Of Double Loop Problem Solving Learning Models to Senior High School Learners Spatial Thinking Ability

Abstract: The purpose of this research is to know the influence of the using Double Loop Problem Solving (DLPS) learning models to Spatial thinking ability.This research is an experimental design. Data collected in this research consisted of interviews, field observations, and written test. Experimental research involves two classes of senior high school as a research subject, namely Social Class XI 5 as experimental class and Social Class XI 4 as control class. The results of this research showed the presence of gain score in experimental class and control class. Experiment class gain score is 15.8 while control class gain score is 9.5. There is a difference gain score between both of classes. Experimental class showed higher average of gain score. It can be noted that the use of models learning DLPS in learners give significant effects against the spatial thinking ability.

Author/s: Fitri Umiyaroh & Budi Handoyo Pages: 27-35

003-006-0017-iijsr.pdf Download File

Title: Demographic Trends in Green Purchase Behavior; A Study of Pakistani Youth Segment

Abstract: Purpose: The current paper focuses to study the gender differences in environmental concern, environmental attitude, perceived environmental responsibility, perceived seriousness of environmental problems, peer influence, self identity in environmental protection and the green purchase behavior in Pakistani youth. Methodology: Here a total of 175 (141 males & 34 females) were studied through questionnaires by convenience sampling. Findings: In this study the researchers found that the females are more conscious about green purchase behavior having mean of 3.2927 greater than that of males 3.2034 in the table 4-2-2. Managerial Implications: This research should provide a good way of information for the Pakistani youth to promote green purchase behavior among themselves. Marketers/mangers should focus on youth to increase G.P.B as the youth is more conscious to emotional appeals than any other age group. Originality Value: This research paper provides important guidelines to the managers to reinforce the green among the consumers.

Author/s: Muhammad Usman Malik, Muhammad Aqeel                                                                                                  

004-008-017-iijsr.pdf Download File

Title: The Historical Studies on Shrines and Places of Worship in Khorezm Oasis

Abstract: The article is devoted; study the history of a place of pilgrimage of the Khorezm oasis in scientific works, scientists with the 30-80 уears XX century. The article examines chronologically the works of ethnographers and archaeologists of the Soviet period.

Author/s: Abidova Zaynab Kadirberganovna    Pages: 46-49 005-009-0017-iijsr Download File

International Interdisciplinary Journal of Scholarly Research (IIJSR)
ISSN 2412-303X

ContentsJanuary 2018
Volume 4, Issue 1  

Title:Employment Status Association with Quality of Sleep among Married Women Of Defense Housing Authority, Karachi

Abstract: On an average 7 hours of sleep per night is required for the better health of an individual. Married women are having the responsibility of their children and if they are working at the same time then their duration of sleep is being affected. There is an increased risk to acquire health disorders, due to inadequate level of sleep. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the area of defense housing authority in Karachi. The aim was to assess the quality of sleep among married women to determine their sleep quality and to assess whether employment status affects their sleep quality with different variables as number and age of children. The data was collected using “Pittsburg sleep quality index”. The sample size for the study was n=400, with n=200 for married employed and n=200 for married unemployed. The analysis has shown that the mean global score of 4.9±2.89 for good sleepers, while the score of 7.03±2.79 has been revealed for the power sleepers. Chi-square test was applied to determine association and independent sample t-test were applied to determine the difference in mean values. Increased working hours per week was associated with poor sleep quality among employed, however, a number of children affects sleep employed significantly as compared to unemployed. Sleep quality of married employed was found to be poor as compared to married unemployed. The study provides the recommendation, which the women need to focus on the sleep hours through the adoption of the sleep-hour plan. They may take a nap, while they come back from work and develop a timeline for healthy sleep hours. Work life balance is essential, for the women; else, the risk factors may posit a heck of challenges for these women. The women need to maintain a hygiene plan, with the reduction of caffeine intakes, so that they may get healthy sleep. These women are recommended to create a peaceful and restful environment at home, at the time of night so that they may relax themselves, and regulate their sleep hours, with the minimal sleep levels they get.

Author/s: Ms Misbah Amin & Syed Adnan Ali
Pages: 01-08

001-001-0018-iijsr.pdf Download File

Title: ​The Influence of Training and Development on Employee Performance: An Empirical Evidence From Selected Universities in Kenya

Abstract: The complexity of today’s business environment has imposed continually changing settings in which organizations or institutions compete for survival. As a result, special emphasis is placed on acquiring and retaining quality employees as this is seen as a key factor underpinning organizational success. The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of nonmonetary reward systems on employees’ performance with reference to selected higher learning institution in Kenya. The study employed correlation research design. the target population of the study was 870 employees of the selected universities and a sample size of 274 was determined by using Yamane (1967) formula. The primary data was collected by Structured selfadministered questionnaires and interview schedule. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean, frequency and standard deviation) as well as inferential statistics especially correlation and regression analysis. The study revealed that training and development had significant influence on employee performance. The study concludes that non-monetary reward systems especially training and development play important role in the employee performance. Therefore, the study recommends, that the management of Universities should embrace nonmonetary reward systems.

Author/s: Roseline Atieno Aduda, Ofwa Joanes Otieno Wu’Adongo, Michael Nyagol & Ruth Otienoh
Pages: 09-17

002-001-0018-iijsr.pdf Download File

Title: Bad Debt before and after Global Crisis in Foreign Exchange Banks of Indonesia

Abstract: The measurement of the banks bad debt is applicable to assess the composite rating of a bank, as the impact of the global crisis toward bad debt of foreign exchange banks. The population of this study was 57 foreign exchange banks. The Hypothesis was tested by using Mann Whitney different test. This study showed that bad debt of foreign exchange banks before, during, and after global crisis did not have significant difference.

Author/s: Suharyono
Pages: 18-23

003-001-0018-iijsr.pdf Download File

Title: Effect of Buyer-Supplier Relationship on Performance in Kibos Sugar Industry​

Abstract: Any organizational initiative, including supply chain management, should ultimately lead to enhanced organizational performance. Organizational performance refers to ability of an enterprise to achieve such objectives as high profit, quality product, large market share, good financial results, and survival at pre-determined time using relevant strategy for action. It is reported that sugar factories have remained uncompetitive with the cost of production being Ksh. 60,600 per ton. The specific objective of this study was to establish effect of buyer-supplier relationship on performance. The study employed correlation survey design. The target population of the study was 74 comprising staff of various departments in the factory and a sample of 62 was used in the study. Both stratified and purposive sampling techniques were applied. The primary data was collected using structured self-administered questionnaire. Reliability and validity tests were carried out at the company. Data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings indicated that there was significant positive relationship between buyer-supplier relationship and performance with correlation coefficient of 0.427(p<0.05). It is recommended that the management of Kibos Sugar Company to enhance buyer-supplier relationship. It is also hoped that Kibos Sugar factory’ management critically check whether they have succeeded or failed in their supply chain management. Academically, this study is expected to contribute to knowledge expansion in the field of supply chain management.

Author/s: Odero Nancy Akinyi, *Dr. Ofwa Joanes Otieno Wu’Adongo & Dr. John Mark Obura
Pages: 24-27

004-001-0018-iijsr.pdf Download File

Title: Revitalization of Social Capital After Volcanic Eruption of Mount Sinabung in Karo Regency, North Sumatera, Indonesia

Abstract: Revitalization of social capital is a tool or way to strengthen relationship among families and to involve the community in sustainable development. The Mount Sinabung disaster recovery program carried out by the government and non-governmental organizations (NGO) has an important contribution in the social aspects of the victims. This paper uses qualitative and quantitative approach to the community affected by the volcanic eruption. Thepost-disaster social conditions indicate thatsocial rifts and even social jealousy have occured among fellow victims. This resultedfrom the people starting to depend on the aid provided by the government and NGO. Communities also experience changeson social capital in their lives after the disaster, from social norms, beliefs, and social networks among themselves because their environment has changed. Revitalization of social capital is conducted by creating adaptation process among disaster victims through social activities managed by the government and NGO,as an effort to restore the customs, cultures and norms in society.

Author/s: Jhony Binsar Halomoan Sitohang, Badaruddin, Henri Sitorus, Rizabuana Ismail & Ria Manurung
Pages: 28-35

005-001-0018-iijsr.pdf Download File

International Interdisciplinary Journal of Scholarly Research
ISSN 2412-303X

January 2019
Volume 5, Issue 1  

Title:Factors Impacting Investment Decision Making: A Mediation of Risk Tolerance and Moderation of Demographic Variables

Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to find out the impact of Personality Traits, Behavioral Biases, Financial Literacy and Intention towards Investment on Investment Decision Making while taking Risk Tolerance as a mediator and Demographic variables as moderators. As with time the behavior of individual changes, there are different factors that may influence their decisions. Many factors including risk, vagueness and different choices come into contact when investor is willing to make decisions. Sometimes the choices made by investors may result in profit making while other time when wrong judgment are made may result in loss. From prior researches it has been found that there is a need to study various psychological factors on investor’s decision making. The objective of the study is to study the impact of investor intention, biasness, financial literacy and personality traits of investors on the investment decision making while focusing on the mediating role of risk tolerance. In the theoretical framework we tested the association of independent variable including behavioral biases and its sub variables (Herd behavior, over confidence, openness to experience, disposition effect), Personality traits (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness to experience, Conscientiousness), Financial Literacy and Investor Intentions on dependent variable i.e. investment decision making with risk tolerance as a mediator and Demographic variables as moderators. The sample for this study comprised individuals who are experienced and have invested in stock market. The sample size of our study was 261. The sample participants have received basic education in Accounts and Finance and they have invested in stock market and works in financial institutions. SPSS, AMOS and EXCEL were used for performing Regression, CFA, reliability and validity of models, model fitness test. The findings revealed that personality traits, intention towards investment and financial literacy have impact on an individual’s risk-tolerance behavior, which, in turn, influences investment decisions about Financial Securities. Thus the findings suggested that for the investment advisors it is better to consider various personality traits, financial literacy and individual risk tolerance when making investment decisions for securities. For future research other psychological and behavioral factors can be tested.

Author/s: Amin, M.Z., Yawer, M., Dr. Ali, S.A.
Pages: 01-36

Title: ​A study of Continuous Modelling using Simulation Software for Business Processes

Abstract: In this paper, two business process simulation (BPS) software tools have been evaluated and compared in terms of the user experience. BPS is a technique, which assists companies in mimicking their everyday operations to find ways in which to improve and develop them to achieve either productivity, financial or risk-free gains. There are many computer packages available on the market, and it is important to have an idea of the type of software that can promote these benefits further. The two software packages investigated in this study are Witness (the Lanner Group) and Simul8 (Simul8 Corporation). These packages are used by organisations as management tools to optimise their internal operations. A practical evaluation of both packages has been undertaken from the experience gained during the model building of a refinery case study. Comparisons were made with a number of conclusions and recommendations, and the advantages and disadvantages of each package are provided. This study is different from other investigations as it focuses on evaluating the user experience rather than a traditional comparison of the statistical output of the reference models and it also focuses on a continuous-time simulation.


Title: Intra-household Inequality in Medical Care in Rural Bangladesh: Analysis of Determinants

Abstract: People in Bangladesh have to buy their own medical care from out of pocket expenses. Like any other purchase decision in households, the purchase of health care also is influenced by socioeconomic variables. This paper analysed the intra household inequalities in medical care consumption in rural Bangladesh using data from a household survey. It measures inequality in terms of resource allocation for health care to household members. Primary selection of determinants of inequality were gender, age, level of education and earning status of household members. Statistical analysis excluded gender and level of education as valid determinants of inequality in consumption of medical care. The paper observes that age and education are two important determinants in case of health care consumption in the households. The allocation of medical care expenses is compared with the burden of sickness and burden of sickness episode of members if households observe characteristics of intra-household inequalities in consumption of medical care. Intra-household deprivation in the allocation of medical expenditure is for household members have ages under 12 and above 57. Level of education has a positive relationship between use of medical care.

Author/s: Sayada Jannatun Naim and Abu Hena Reza Hasan

Title: A Comparative Investigation on The Effects of Processing Kale By Cutting, Frying, Steaming and Boiling on Vitamin C Content

Abstract: Vitamin C is an essential part of the diet for human consumption and counteracts diseases like scurvy. In Zimbabwe, kale is one of the most consumed vegetables and carters for the vitamin C requirements of most low income generating households. However, these vegetables cannot be consumed raw thus reducing the amount of vitamin C during cooking.  The objectives of the research are to determine the vitamin C content in Kale from a local home garden, examine how processing i.e. shredding/cutting large pieces affects Vitamin C content during cooking, determine the effect of these methods of cooking frying, boiling and steaming Kale on its Vitamin C content and to make a comparison of vitamin C content in cooked and uncooked Kale. Kale from a local garden in Harare, Zimbabwe was acquired and quickly experimented on to determine vitamin C content. Titration, using 2.6 Dichlorophenol-indophenol blue dye solution, was done to oxidize vitamin C. The amount of dye that triggered a colour change to yellow in kale was used to determine the amount of vitamin C in kale using standard equations.  Kale was cut into two different sizes: shredded and bigger cuts. Both kale samples were subjected to three cooking methods: frying, steaming and boiling. For shredded kale, raw kale had the highest vitamin C content (22.50mg/100g) followed by fried, steamed and boiled kale (14.06mg/100g, 6,25g/100gand 4.75 50mg/100g respectively) in that order. Bigger cuts had slightly higher vitamin C content, raw (23.30mg/100g) fried (14.40mg/100g), steamed(6.75mg/100g) and boiled kale (4.99mg/100g). Frying retains more vitamin C than steaming and boiling at p<0.05. Steaming is also a better cooking method to retain vitamin C though there is a significant loss. However, on comparing means at p<0.05, there was no significant difference between steaming and boiling. The results also showed that bigger the cut pieces are the better the vitamin C retention during cooking but at p<0.05, there is no significant difference between the shredded and bigger cuts. Further analysis of the data showed that steaming retains more vitamin C (8.06%) when comparing shredded and bigger cuts, than boiling (4.95%), raw (4.54%) and frying (2.44%). The conclusions were that vitamin C is very heat liable and water-soluble thus it can be termed unstable, the bigger the cut pieces the better the retention of vitamin C on cooking. Frying retains more vitamin C than steaming and boiling as steaming retains more than boiling. Pointed out is the fact that different cooking methods have different effects on the vitamin C content in Kale.

Author/s: Vere Miriam Jacqueline and Henry Matienga